People Smuggling

Posted: December 26, 2011 in About Life

The current era of globalization opens up opportunities for the opening of free markets interstate traffic. Each country has a great chance to co-exist in domestic demand, both in terms of infrastructure and superstructure. Globalization coupled with technological advances. The development of information technology and transportation is increasing, making the boundaries between countries increasingly apparent. Traffic lanes are increasingly easy to access.The more wide open road traffic between countries in this era of globalization also led to increased mobility of goods and people between one country to another. In fulfilling its needs, indirectly, the state opened wide the door entry and access into the scope of state boundaries. Each individual also easily travel from one country to another with different interests. With this phenomenon, various attempts were made to maintain security and stability of countries, such as setting rules about immigration, although there are still many gaps that can be exploited by certain parties illegally for personal gain.The era of globalization and raises the potential for distortions. Access is easy and simple rules give rise to a practice toyed with transnational crime. This transnational crime has existed since the first true, but according to changing times, various innovations have been made by the offenders so that transnational crime also appear in the package organized by involving many parties, both from within and outside the country.Transnational crime, or known by the term transnational crime pose much harm to a country, even to specific regions within the country. Various deviations that can be done, such as the exploitation of resources (natural resources and human resources) that are too excessive bedampak to existing human world, with the emergence or strengthening of the problems, such as poverty, conflict, and other losses that are material. Natural disasters also become one of the problems that later questioned the cause of emergence associated with the practice of transnational crime that resulted in environmental damage. Thus, transnational crime “had” a problem shared, problem in the countries of the world; a national and international issues.
Migration is not a new phenomenon. For centuries, humans have traveled to migrateseeking better lives elsewhere. In recent decades, the process of globalization has increased the factors that encouraged immigrants to seek his fortune abroad. This then leads to the increased amount of activity migration from developing countries inAsia, Africa, South America and Eastern Europe to Western Europe, Australia and North America. Departing from this phenomenon was then emerging practicedeviations, ie take action to move people into destination countries illegally because of limitations and the inability of immigrants in the immigrant qualifies as an official.
People smuggling is a crime. It was said, because people smuggling is clearlyviolating the official rules of the countries concerned. It has been acknowledged thatpeople smuggling is an act violating human rights and contemporary forms of slavery.The immigrants are treated poorly. Very often inhuman conditions of travel; stacked intransport (usually a boat) are full and crowded, and often a fatal accident. Arriving at their destination, their illegal status causes them were forced into slavery forced the smugglers who worked for years in illegal labor market. The immigrants are not directly have exploited by certain parties for personal gain.
People smuggling became a separate business area that is very profitable. It is estimated that each year can result in a gain of five to ten million dollars. Based onthese estimates, at least one million immigrants have to pay an average of five to tenthousand dollars by force when crossing borders between countries. International Organization for Migration (IOM) noted that people smuggling, which is the “dark side” of globalization, is a big business that has grown and prospered. In addition,people smuggling also poses its own problems for the countries where they sought asylum.
The practice of smuggling people or people smuggling has increased in recent decades and at present, a significant report on the number of illegal immigration continues to increase in many countries. People smuggling can generally occur with the consent of the person or group wishing to be smuggled, and the reason the most common of them is the opportunity to get a job or improve their economic status, hopes to gain a better livelihood for themselves or family, and also to go avoid conflict in the country of origin.According to the report posted on the website the International Police Organization (Interpol), in 2006 nearly 31,000 immigrants, about half came from Senegal, in droves moving towards the Canary Islands, Spain. The illegal immigrants tend to travel by boat on the way in the open sea by a distance so far. Since 2003, there has been significant displacement of Iraqi immigrants and continues to increase until 2006. Most of them have fled to Jordan and Syria, but still found a significant movement towards Europe, America and Australia ( Organization for Migration (IOM) estimates that, globally, four million people moved illegally each year. This can happen because the practice is very lucrative human smuggling, the relative risk is lower and in line with increasing employment in the organized crime network of international scope. Meanwhile, the Australian Government stated that during the period from 1999 to 2001 trends in people smuggling activity continues to grow, demonstrated by a significant increase of the number of unauthorized arrivals by boat, but in the case of Australia, the issue of people smuggling has decreased due to the policy proclaimed by Depeartemen Immigration, Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA) with almost complete cessation of the ships that are not legitimate in recent years. Referring to the report DIMIA, in 2004 to 2005, there were 94 new cases of people smuggling, this figure is a decrease of 26.6% compared to know the 2003 and 2004. In addition, 88 cases of people smuggling resolved in the same year, which is also a decrease of 38.5% over the previous year.  But now cases of people smuggling increased again. (See
Background The occurrence of People smuggling:
People smuggling in fact depart from the drive to become illegal immigrants.Therefore, the causes that gave rise to the occurrence of illegal immigrants may also be the reasons for the actions of human smuggling.

People smuggling can occur due to many factors, especially the driving factors that cause large population of a country make the transition from the country of origin to countries of destination. One of the most important factor is the economic consequences. A country that is not able to provide employment causes unemployment that prefer to move from their home country to find a place in hopes of getting a job. An example is in Mexico that failed to create enough jobs (Richard Mines & Alain de Janvry, 1982: 444). Even if there are jobs, minimum wage is the reason for immigrants to do the migration from the country of origin (Michael P. Todaro & Lydia Marusko, 1987: 101).

Economic problems can also be triggered by the conflict in the country of origin.Prolonged conflict or war causes of poverty so that the number of unemployed becomes so much. Wars or conflicts in the country of origin is related to the political aspect, security, tribalism, and so on. Moreover, the conflict is also a driving force for illegal immigrants to leave their home areas in search of a safe place or detached from the conflict. therefore, they ask for asylum in developed countries that can provide assurance of safety and protection of human rights.

The number of people smuggling practices are also caused by immigrants who swept persuasions smugglers agents (Smuggler). In addition, external factors stemming from the country of destination is also a major reason for illegal immigrants to move from the country of origin, including the country’s economic system, allowing a stable destination for immigrants, in their understanding, get a job with decent wages. In the countries of destination notabennya is a developed country, the businessmen are happy to welcome and utilize the services of illegal workers because their wages are much lower than workers in the country (Jean B. Grossman, 1984: 243)

Basically there are three policies that are used in dealing with people smuggling, theborder controls, deportation and Legalization policies, and work-site inspections,raids, and Sanctions against Employers or illegal Immigrants (Guido Friebel andSergei Guriev, 2006: 1086). The first is border control, with the aim to limit the space for the agents of smugglers and illegal immigrants. The second is the endorsementkebijakan.Yang deportation and the third is the examination and review of job sites,conduct raids, and strict sanctions against the perpetrators of human traffickingagents. Guido Friebel and Sergei Guriev explained that the policy of deportation will not be able to give good results in reducing the flow of illegal immigrants, as long as no Sanki really tough on the perpetrators of human trafficking (Guido, Ibid., Hal.1088).Because all stems to the activities of the agents, who continually and intenserecruiting people from the country of origin. Basically all it also requires an intense cooperation among countries to prevent suchcrimes happening continuously.
The Conclusion:
“Illegal immigration and people smuggling is a very serious problem and a threat tothe international world.”

Illegal immigration and people smuggling occurs due to internal and external factors.Internal factors are derived from the country of origin, such as war or economic consequences, which then encourages immigrants to leave the area of ​​origin andseek a new livelihood in other areas. While external factors adalan originating fromthe country of destination, because of the guaranteed asylum and the hopes of getting a great paying job because developed countries have good economicstability.

It takes cooperation and a strong commitment among countries and relevant agencies in order to maximize the handling of people smuggling and reduce the numbers of illegal immigrants continues to increase.

It takes human resource development, allocation of funds / budget, and facilities andprasara in law enforcement efforts against the crime of human smuggling.
Need to be made International Law or a special policy that explicitly and clearlydiscuss people smuggling, including provisions governing such activities as a crime.


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